2 edition of Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity found in the catalog.
Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity
by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||Martin S. Muntzel ... [et al.].|
|Series||[NASA contractor report] -- NASA-CR-201815., NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-201815.|
|Contributions||Muntzel, Martin S., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.|
|The Physical Object|
Mechanisms of Hormone Action. Alter normal cell activities (target cells)-change membrane permeability or membrane potential-alter protein synthesis-alter enzyme activity-alter secretory activity-stimulate mitosis. Amino-Acid Based Hormones. Amino-acid derivatives peptides, proteins. Sympathetic nerve stimuli. Deficiency of Thyroxin. extremities, and peripheral nerve block often produces a sym-pathectomy in the affected limb because the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers travel along the somatic nerves. Figure Differences between the location of the ganglia in the sym-pathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous Size: KB.
Abstract. Insulin acts throughout the body to reduce circulating energy and to increase energy storage. Within the brain, insulin produces a net catabolic effect by reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure; this is evidenced by the hypophagia and increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity induced by central insulin by: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a systemic metabolic disease, which is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to lack of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both [1,2].In , an epidemiological study demonstrated that million adults are living with DM, and this number is projected to reach million by .Type 2 DM (T2DM) is commonly associated with Author: Abdelaziz M. Hussein, Elsayed A. Eid, Medhat Taha, Rami M. Elshazli, Raouf Fekry Bedir, Lashin Saad.
OBJECTIVE —To describe the progression of autonomic impairment among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetic metabolic impairments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —We investigated the consequence of diabetes and pre-diabetic metabolic impairments on the 9-year change in heart rate variability (HRV) in a population-based cohort Cited by: Not only does insulin suppress lipolysis, but this fundamental insulin property is mediated in a very large way in the brain. This is mediated through the sympathetic nervous system. Insulin reduces sympathetic nervous system activity in adipose tissue. Insulin fails to inhibit lipolysis, and serum fatty acids are elevated.
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Get this from a library. Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity. [Martin S Muntzel; United States.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.;]. Acute peripheral and central increases in insulin levels can elevate sympathetic activity through central insulin receptor action in key brain regions regulating autonomic function.
Conversely, central manipulation of the sympathetic nervous system can affect insulin sensitivity peripherally through a variety mechanisms including modulation of Cited by: 2.
Insulin is a Sodium Retainer: Early Evidence. Atchley et al. reported in that withdrawal of insulin therapy to diabetic subjects caused natriuresis and diuresis, which was reversed by resumption of insulin and Bogdonoff demonstrated in that acute insulin infusion significantly attenuated the osmotic natriuresis and diuresis caused by infusion Author: Michael W.
Brands, M. Marlina Manhiani. Definitions and Concepts. Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by the β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and maintains normal blood glucose levels by facilitating cellular glucose uptake, regulating carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and promoting cell division and growth through its mitogenic effects.
Insulin resistance is defined where a normal or elevated Cited by: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. (The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.)MeSH: D Insulin resistance can be broadly defined as an impaired response to the physiological effects of insulin, including glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism.
This condition also affects vascular endothelial function. Insulin action is impaired in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity.
Mechanism of Insulin Action. Molecular mechanisms for insulin resistance: The fatty acids compete with glucose for substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level.
Author: Morris White. Title: Sympathetic Mechanisms of Hypoglycemic Counterregulation VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 3 Author(s): Robert P. Hoffman Affiliation:Children's Hospital ED, Children's Drive, Columbus, OHUSA.
Keywords:muscle sympathetic nerve activity, epinephrine, type 1 diabetes, antecedent hypoglycemia, ACTH Abstract: In normal individuals hypoglycemic Cited by: The shape of the glucose-insulin dose-response curve is determined primarily by the activity of glucokinase, which governs the rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism in the β-cell.
Glucose levels below 5 mmol/L (90 mg/dL) do not affect insulin release; half-maximal stimulation occurs at about 8 mmol/L ( mg/dL). Insulin (from Latin insula, 'island') is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either Aliases: INS, IDDM, IDDM1, IDDM2, ILPR, IRDN.
The idea that sympathetic hyperactivity contributes to the development of insulin resistance is not new (Defronzo, ), although the mechanisms involved in the association between sympathetic nerve activity and insulin resistance (Egan, ; Tentolouris et al., ; Tsioufis et al.,), are complex and not clearly understood, and Cited by: TNF-α, IL-6 and insulin induce another important group of IR factors — suppressors of cytokine signalling, SOCS-1 and -3, which have at least three different mechanisms of action: they compete with IRS-1 for association with insulin receptor, they inhibit Janus kinase, involved in insulin signalling, and they augment proteosomal IRS The function of the vascular system is to allow the delivery of blood (oxygen and nutrients) to the tissues according to their unique metabolic needs.
To accomplish this task for the ever changing tissue requirements without compromising the blood supply of vital organs, the vascular system responds in a variety of by: 1. We have recently shown that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA).
Animal studies support the concept that low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) and physical exercise, via stimulation of ergoreceptors and somatic afferents in the muscles, may modulate the activity of the sympathetic nervous by: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular and chronic renal disease.
Despite multiple important strides that have been made in our understanding of the etiology of hypertension, the mechanisms remain complex due to multiple factors, including the environment, heredity and diet. This review focuses on dietary contributions, providing evidence for the involvement of Cited by: 5.
This chapter will provide a synthesis of the current findings on the mechanisms of the onset and maintenance of cardiovascular and renal complications in obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes, with a particular focus on sympathetic nervous activity and insulin : Kazuko Masuo, Gavin W.
Lambert. insulin receptors and the blockade of these receptors is able to promote hyperpolarization of this neurons .
Evidence shows that there is an interaction between insulin receptors and glutamate receptors since the infusion of NMDA receptors antagonist within the RVLM was able to blockade insulin effects on MAP and sympathetic activity .
Abstract:Insulin resistance is defined as a preliminary step of type 2 diabetes mellitus with decreased insulin action evoked by continuous postprandial hyperglycemia, which is provoked by high fat and calories dieting, a lack of physical activity and obesity.
In the early phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients have a hyperinsulinemia to Cited by: 8. Abstract. Measurement of regional sympathetic activity in lean essential hypertension patients using electrophysiologic (sympathetic nerve recording) and neurochemical (measurement of norepinephrine spillover) techniques demonstrates activation of sympathetic outflow to the heart, kidneys, and skeletal muscle vasculature in younger (Cited by:.
Insufficient hepatic O 2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients .Increases in sympathetic nerve activity and circulating catecholamines are observed following insulin infusion or meal ingestion .
The sympatho-excitatory effects of insulin are thought to function primarily to maintain blood pressure by offsetting peripheral by: 3.Introduction. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately million users worldwide (see Orsini et al., ).
Δ 9 ‐Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 ‐THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant, but beyond the so‐called phytocannabinoids, there are synthetic compounds, such as nabilone which is used for therapeutic purposes, and Cited by: 6.